Valeraldehyde is an alkyl aldehyde used in flavorings, resin chemistry and rubber accelerators. Valeraldehyde is also known as PENTANAL, FEMA 3098, Valeral, n-C4H9CHO, n-valeral, 1-pentanal, N-PENTANAL, butylformal, pentan-1-al, n-C4H9CHO and Pentanenal among others. Valeraldehyde is chemically stable but highly flammable. Valeraldehyde vapor is denser than air and can travel long distances and accumulate in coastal areas creating an explosion hazard. It is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids, strong alkalies and strong reducing agents. Valeraldehyde occurs as a colorless liquid with a pungent odor. Valeraldehyde is slightly soluble in water and less dense than water.
Valeraldehyde is an important industrial chemical and is used as a chemical building block in the production of valeric acid and amyl alcohol. In addition, it is used as a fragrance additive and rubber accelerator additive. Valeric acid is used as a precursor or chemical intermediate to manufacture synthetic lubricants, perfumes, agricultural chemicals, flavors and pharmaceuticals. Valeraldehyde is also used as a flavoring agent in foods. Commercially, valeraldehyde is prepared by reduction of n-valeric acid or by oxidation of the corresponding alcohol, 1-pentanol. Valeraldehyde can be industrially prepared by the oxo process, which involves the reaction of olefins with hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst. In addition, valeraldehyde is used as a synthetic and natural flavoring agent. It is used to flavor a product to give it a specific taste (fruity or nutty flvour) and is an ingredient of rose oil used to flavor chewing tobacco, beverages and food.
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The growth in the end-user industries is expected to be the major driving factor for the growth of valeraldehyde market. The growth in the fragrance industry is expected to increase the consumption of valeraldehyde. In addition, the demand for fragrance in expected to increase substantially in emerging economies due to rapid economic development and rise in disposable incomes. The increase in demand in emerging economies is expected to boost the consumption of valeraldehyde. However, availability of substitutes could hamper the growth of this market.
Valeraldehyde is a versatile chemical, which has a global demand due to its features and broad range of applications. Valeraldehyde is the fastest-growing oxo chemical and has steady demand in the major economies. Demand for valeraldehyde in the U.S. is expected to grow moderately while consumption in Asia Pacific is expected to grow at a high rate. Asia Pacific, Europe and North America are the largest markets for valeraldehyde. China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan and Singapore are major consumers of valeraldehyde in Asia Pacific. The long-term prospect for valeraldehyde in Western Europe has improved considerably due to consolidations and capacity reductions which have resulted in improved efficiencies and capacity utilization. Many of the key players are shifting their manufacturing facilities to the Asia Pacific due to availability of land and cheap labor.
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Some of the key players in this market are BASF (Germany), Dow Chemical (U.S.), E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (U.S.), Mitsubishi Chemical (Japan), LG Chem (South Korea), AkzoNobel (Netherlands), Sumitomo Chemical (Japan), Mitsui Chemicals (Japan), Toray Industries (Japan), Eastman Chemical Company(U.S.), and Evonik Industries (Germany) among others. Dow chemical manufactures valeric acid using the oxo process. Butylene is reacted with synthesis gas (hydrogen mixture and carbon monoxide) in the presence of a catalyst which yields valeraldehyde. Valeraldehyde is then oxidized to valeric acid.