Proteins are macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues linked by peptide bonds. Protein structure comprises primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure levels. Its function and shape depends upon the amino acid sequence and the sequence of bases in the genes. Protein function in an optimal condition, and denatures when exposed to extreme conditions. Change in temperature, salt concentration, and pH can also denature the protein. Protein purification is the series of processes intended to isolate a single type of protein from a complex mixture. Protein purification is done with the help of various processes such as crude extract, salting out, fractionation, and dialysis. In fractionation, protein is separated into different fractions based on the size of the charge, whereas in crude extract, protein is separated by breaking cells with the help of osmosis or homogenization.
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Separation of protein is based on the chemical and physical properties such as size, shape, surface-exposed hydrophobic residues, solubility, isoelectric point, and charged surface residues. Protein purification is done for genetic engineering, antibody production, sequence determination, structural determination, finding inhibitors, and detailed kinetic studies. It is also used for the extraction of purified protein for enormously precious biochemical reagents. Protein purification is done with the help of techniques such as chromatography and electrophoresis. Chromatography is a group of separation techniques, characterized by a distribution of the molecule to be separated between the stationary and mobile phases. Affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography are some of the types of chromatography techniques used in protein purification. In addition, electrophoresis is the technique used to separate macromolecules based on size and it applies a negative charge as protein moves towards a positive charge. Gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis are some of the electrophoresis techniques used in protein purification.
North America dominates the global market for protein purification due to increasing R&D in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry and technological advancement in protein purification in the region. Asia is expected to show high growth rates in the next five years in the global protein purification market, with China and India being the fastest-growing markets in the Asia Pacific region. The key driving forces for the protein purification market in developing countries are the large pool of patients, growing number of research projects, and rising government funding for research activities in the region.
Increasing R&D in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry, rising government funding for research activities, technological advancement in protein purification, and increasing need for high-resolution information on protein structure are some of the key factors driving the growth of the global protein purification market. However, issues of high cost and time consumption, and lack of trained and skilled researchers act as major restraints for the growth of the global protein purification market.
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The growing need to identify new ligands for drug discovery, rapid purification kit, and the introduction of automated workstations to reduce the labor force would offer opportunities for the global protein purification market. The major companies operating in the global protein purification market are Merck Millipore, Takara Bio Company, Applied Biosystems, Qiagen, Advanced Bioscience Laboratories, Inc., GE Healthcare Life Sciences, PerkinElmer, Inc., Thermo Fisher Scientific, Agilent Technologies, and Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.