Akinetopsia, also recognized as motion blindness, is a rare neuropsychological disorder in which a patient cannot identify motion of any moving objects in his own visual field (area of visualization), whereas patient is able to see and analyze objects that are stationary. All the moving objects in the patient’s area of vision appears stationary to him, this is caused by complications in visual process in the central nervous system of the body. The moving visual process is controlled by visual cortex and white matter of the brain, therefore bilateral cortical lesions outside the striate cortex in the temporal lobe is the root cause of akinetopsia (cerebral akinetopsia) however there are some patients with impaired speed discrimination which is restricted to hemifield.
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Generally because of change in brain structure, the psychological process of understanding sensory information gets disturbed, these disturbances in the visual information process causes akinetopsia. The defects may be associated with visual field or with visual processing. visual field defects can be described as difficulty in identifying 2-D shapes of non-motion signals, dynamic and static binocular disparity whereas visual processing defects include difficulty with object recognition, line orientation discrimination, line bisection. Currently, as there is very less incidences and prevalence of the akinetopsia, there is no specific treatment or drug is available for the treatment of this impairment. At the same time there are very few case studies and patient data is available related to this complication.
There are various causes of this disease out of which the well defined causes are brain lesions in the cortex which are responsible for kinetic visualization, Alzheimer’s disease, high dose of antidepressants, stroke and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Currently there are only two earlier clinical reports describing the symptoms of the cerebral akinetopsia. Both these reports are based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted on two patients with complaints of loss of motion vision resulted because of traumatic brain injuries and Alzheimer’s disease. There are some articles published to study akinetopsia induced by toxicity of nefazodone, a newly introduced serotonin reuptake blocker and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. The sensitivity of visual motion can be specifically compromised by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the cortex which is used for non invasive procedures used for treatment of depression. The reversible inactivation of TNS in the cortex and discontinuation of antidepressants can be treatment in this complication; this has allowed the researcher to study in this direction. It is observed from some cases that akinetopsia can be treated by brain surgery. The cortical lesions which are responsible for such impairment are the outcome of seizures, tumors and occipital haematoma. At present some diagnostic tests are used for akinetopsia are visual stimuli technique, contrast threshold detection and neuro imaging. All these procedures maps the lesions in the small cortical area of the temporal lobe of the brain
Akinetopsia market can be segmented according to different categories such as regional geography and different causes of disease. Geographically, this market can be segmented in four regions namely North American, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World. The market can be segmented according to causes for the akinetopsia such as strokes, seizures, traumatic brain injuries, overdose of antidepressant and others.
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Bristol Myers Squibb drug nefazodone an antidepressant, is one of the major reason for developing akinetopsia.