Pharmacokinetics is currently defined as the branch of pharmacology concerned with the study of the time course of drug distribution, absorption, metabolism and excretion. Pharmacokinetics is derived from the Greek word ‘pharmacon’ (drug) and ‘kineticos’ (motion) Drugs aims to prevent, cure or control various diseases states. To achieve this goal suitable concentration of medicine must be delivered to the target tissues so that will be beneficial, yet nontoxic levels are obtained. Pharmacological and toxicological actions of medicines are primarily related to their concentrations. Healthcare professionals involved with medicines must diagnose the onset speed of medicine action as well as the intensity and duration of its effect. Pharmacokinetics studies are essential to establish therapeutic plans to evaluate their relevance or to proceed to dosage adjustments in patients. This is especially true for medical products with a narrow therapeutic range.
Steps involved in pharmacokinetics study are absorption, distribution, metabolism, Excretion. Absorption is the process whereby an element entering the body is assimilated by it. For proper pharmacokinetics study, it is necessary to know both the rate and the extent to which the active substance or therapeutic moiety are absorbed. They include substance intended to produce or not produce systematic effects. Once absorbed the medicine may then reversibly leave the bloodstream and distribute into the interstitial and intracellular fluids. Metabolism is the process whereby a substance is irreversibly. Metabolism is the process whereby medicine is metabolized by liver, kidney or other sites. It is refers to the process of making the drug more water soluble which may lead to medicine inactivation and excretion. Excretion is the elimination of substance from body.
FDA recommended Pharmacokinetics Testing before lab, clinician and patient education about reporting all prescription medicine and supplements prior to blood draws. The global pharmacokinetics market is expected to witness a favorable growth during the forecast period. Mandatory to know drug effect on body before medical uses and clinical trials, and huge amount of investments in research and developments from pharmaceutical companies are some of primary factors driving the growth of the global pharmacokinetics market. Moreover, increasing government investments in the field of life science and healthcare further contributing to the growth of global pharmacokinetics market. Increasing diseases and geriatric population are also major factor in growth of global pharmacokinetics market.
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The global Pharmacokinetics Market is segmented on basis of Therapeutic application and end user:
- Segmentation by Therapeutic Application
- Cardiovascular Diseases
- Infectious Diseases
- Autoimmune Diseases
- Respiratory Disorders
- Neurological Disorders
- Segmentation by End User
- Biopharmaceutical Companies
- Pharmaceutical Companies
- Contract Research Organizations
Handling of a drug by the body can be very difficult as different processes such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination work to alter drug concentration in tissue and fluids. Generalizations of body processes are necessary to predict a drug’s behavior in the body. One the way to make these simplification is to apply mathematical principles to various processes. To apply mathematical principles, a model of body must be selected. A basic type of model used in pharmacokinetics is compartmental model. Compartmental models are categorized by the numbers of compartments needed to describe the drug’s behavior in the body. The compartments do not represent a group of similar tissues or fluids. The model can be used to predict the time course of drug concentrations in the body. To construct a compartmental model as a representation of body, simplification of body structure are made. Organs and tissues in which drug distribution is similar are grouped into one compartment.
Regionally, the global Pharmacokinetics Market is segmented into five key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to lead the global market due high adoption of drugs and medicine investments in research and development activities in the region. However, the Pharmacokinetics Market in the Asia-Pacific region is expected to witness significant growth rate over the forecast period.
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Some of the players operating in the global Pharmacokinetics Market are:
- Charles River Laboratories International Inc.
- Covance Inc.
- Cyprotex PLC (An Evotek AG Company)
- and Drumetix Laboratories
- Eurofins Scientific
- GVK Biosciences Private Limited
- Parexel International Corporation
These players are highly focused on providing novel beads based DNA extraction and purification kits for rapid and reliable isolation of DNA, which is set to further stimulate the growth of the global Pharmacokinetics Market. For instance, in March 2017, Roche introduced the MagNA Pure 24 System for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids. This is an advanced instrument that is designed to extract nucleic acids from a range of human samples through a single reagent kit. Likewise, in March 2013, Aurora Biomed launched the VERSA 10 Nucleic Acid Purification Workstation. It is one of the smallest automated liquid handling workstation in the market that helps researchers to conduct large projects in limited space. Thus, innovation is set to drive the demand for automated magnetic bead-based nucleic acid instruments.